pH of Blood
The value of pH varies in different regions of the body. Stomach has the highest acidic value of pH that are 1.35 to 3.5 which helps in protection of stomach mucosa from microbial attack and in process of digestion of food. The pH of skin is 4 to 6.5 that aim to provide safety against overgrowth of microbes. For the same purpose, the vaginal pH is 4.7. Moreover, urine and blood also possess the varying values of pH in order to maintain the internal amount of body. In this regard, the role of carbon dioxide is significant in sustaining the pH of blood.
Two systems, respiratory and renal systems are present in the human body in order to maintain the pH. The body possesses the amazing capacity of preserving the blood pH via these systems. The membrane of cells usually requires acidic pH for protection. Blood stream is the sensitive system in comparison of other systems of the body. It possesses the most important buffer system of the body. Venous and arterial blood must sustain the slight alkaline pH. The pH of venous blood should be 7.36 and pH of arterial blood should be 7.41. The process of acidosis occurs when the pH of blood drops below 7.41. On the other hand, the process of alkalosis occurs in the case of pH rising more than 7.41.
Carbon dioxide is the waste substance of the respiration that must be eliminated from the body. Accumulation of carbon dioxide gas is toxic and may lead the body to life-threatening circumstances such as impairment of brain functions and judgment abilities. The chemoreceptors present in the medulla oblongata, carotid arteries, and aorta involve in the regulation of blood pH. The pH of blood decreases as the level of carbon dioxide increases. When the concentration of carbon dioxide elevates in blood, the production of carbonic acid occurs leading to the liberation of H+ ions. The release of hydrogen ions declines the pH to the acidic range. As a result, the receptors in the carotid sinus and aorta stimulate the breathing rate via initiating breathing reflex. Simultaneously, the receptors existing in medulla oblongata maintain the elevated breathing rate until the pH of blood comes back to normal. The normal pH of blood is somewhat basic or alkaline. The maintenance of pH value in blood is essential for the normal body functions. The alteration of blood pH may result from certain disease conditions or some disorders may lead to the change in pH values. The optimal pH value is the critical factor of homeostasis. Carbon dioxide plays a significant role in maintaining blood pH by stimulating the increased breathing rate.