After 15 years of Socrates’ death, Aristotle appeared in the picture with his brilliant ideas. The difference between Aristotle and Plato is that Aristotle used to write in monologue while Plato used to write in the form of dialogue. He was not the only philosopher; he was the man of universal learning. There is no aspect that he hasn’t touched. He was an idealist. He was concerned with the material world rather than the world beyond physicality.
Aristotle posited that reality lies in this substantial world. Plato’s believe that the things exist in the ideal world are unchangeable and the things in this substantial world are subjected to change. Aristotle denies this theory; he says reality lies in the material world, not in the ideal world. He asserts that how can a non-living and unchangeable thing from something living and changeable. He says reality is in material form. Plato brings separation between form and matter, Aristotle denies this concept. He says matter and form cannot exist without each other. Aristotle gives priority to matter and combines both form and matter.
Aristotle had a different idea about philosophy. According to him, the function of philosophy is to understand nature. Aristotle associates discipline to everything and gives a systematic way to understand everything. He believes that heavenly bodies are far away. These bodies are cannot be understood rightly because of their distance. However, things that are nearer to use can be understood rightly.
He further asserts that the soul is the form of the body. Everything has a soul. He classifies this soul into three parts: vegetative soul, Sensitive soul, and rational soul. Vegetative soul is found in the botanical garden. Sensitive soul found in animals and rational soul, purely related to human beings. By means of the rational soul, human beings understand nature. He says that at the death of the body, soul perishes because matter and form lie together. Their partition causes the death.
Physical phenomena are introduced in the motion of causes according to Aristotle. Formal materials are efficient and final cause is causing the movement of the world. There are four causes, and these four causes help Aristotle to understand anything. He suggests that there is some divine force that is causing other causes and making movements happened. This divine force is God; he is the only unmoved mover.
Although most of the theories of Aristotle has derived out of Plato’s philosophies, but he doesn’t shy of denying most of the concepts asserted by Plato. He believed that the world that is here is the true source to attain knowledge.
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