Biotechnology is a branch of science which deal with the study of the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture useful proteins and products for the betterment of human life. One of the most important applications of biotechnology is Genetic engineering. Genetic Engineering or genetic modification is a technique which is used to manipulate or modify the genome of an organism by using different biotechnologies. Genetic engineering is a modern technology that changes the genetic makeup of cells. In this technique, a selected gene is isolated from the organism and introduced into the body of another organism to obtain a useful product or to produce novel or improved organism.
Other Applications of Biotechnology:
1: Protein Synthesis:
By the help of biotechnology, it is now possible to synthesize certain useful proteins on a large scale. It is useful in the treatment of certain diseases like hemophilia. For the treatment of hemophilia, blood-clotting factor vii is now available.
2: Hormones Preparation:
Biotechnology is also used in the production of certain hormones such as growth hormones for increasing the height in human and insulin for the treatment of diabetes.
3: Preparation of single-stranded DNA:
This technology is also used in the preparation of the Single-Stranded DNA. This DNA probe acts like an instrument which is used in the process of diagnosis. This DNA Strand is attached with a radioactive substance to easily diagnose the disease.
4: Varieties in Agriculture:
In the field of agriculture, biotechnology has done wonders. It is used to produce new and better varieties of plants.
Disadvantages of Biotechnology:
i) Spreading of Bacteria or microorganisms:
During the research of microorganisms, some bacteria and microorganisms can escape from labs and spread into the environment. These bacteria can infect people and other living beings of the surrounded areas.
ii) Side-effects of Medicines:
Medicine produced by this biotechnology may have certain side effects which may be harmful to the human health.
iii) Unhealthy food:
The new varieties of animal and plants, which are produced by the technique of biotechnology, are sometimes not tested properly and are brought into the market. Some of such untested food could be dangerous for the human environment and health. Different kinds of diseases are being observed in human beings. Moreover, processed food is the main reason for the occurrence of cancer in human beings.
iv) Allergic Protein:
Some protein obtains through biotechnology, may cause allergy in human beings.
v) Growth Control:
Some resistant varieties of plants are obtained by biotechnology. These varieties may spread very rapidly and cause harm to the neighboring plants.